Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights for men. He is however best known for being the main redactor of the Encyclopédie, whose aim was to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts, sciences, languages, and philosophy) and to present them to the people, to fight ignorance and obscurantism. Cette valeur comprend les cours d'eau et leurs estuaires, les lacs intérieurs, la partie du lac de Genève qui appartient a la France et, sur les côtes, toute la laisse de la plus basse mer jusqu'au zéro des cartes marines. Un arrêté du 11 messidor an X (30 juin 1802) crée une commission de sept membres qui propose la confection générale par “masses de culture”. Les limites administratives sont – ou devraient être - cohérentes avec les limites portées sur le cadastre. La géographie de la France consiste en l'étude du territoire de la France, pays d'une superficie de 551 500 km2 (675 417 km2 avec l'outre-mer), s'étendant sur 1 000 km du nord au sud et d'est en ouest (plus grande distance du nord au sud : Bray-Dunes à Cerbère). By the end of his reign, France had emerged as the most powerful state in Europe. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. [125] Three communes—Paris, Lyon and Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed. Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterized by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred on the French Section of the Workers' International and its successor the Socialist Party (since 1969); and the other right-wing, centred on the Gaullist Party, whose name changed over time to the Rally of the French People (1947), the Union of Democrats for the Republic (1958), the Rally for the Republic (1976), the Union for a Popular Movement (2007) and The Republicans (since 2015). [33] The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened, and the Gauls continued to harass the region until 345 BC when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Rome. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD), High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century), UNESCO World Heritage Sites and protected areas, For information about regional languages see. Jean Carpentier (dir. [19] France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. L'IGN engage en 2001 la réalisation de la BD Parcellaire composante du « Référentiel à Grande Echelle », un référentiel de données géographiquement cohérentes initiées par l’État. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services (Paris, Lyon, Lille, Marseille, Toulouse, Rennes) and tramway services (Nantes, Strasbourg, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Montpellier...) complementing bus services. [404] As of 2017[update], the favourable view of the United States had dropped to 46%. The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.[385]. La valeur publiée en 1907, correspondant aux possessions de 1906 s'établit quant à elle à 10 367 493 km2, soit huit fois plus qu'en 1878[29]. The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The three main French brewing regions are Alsace (60% of national production), Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Lorraine. Élaboration du cadastre général de la France et d'une carte topographique, Premières évaluations de la superficie cadastrale de la France, Nouvelle évaluation de la superficie de la France métropolitaine à partir de la carte d'État-major, Essor de la géomatique dès les années 1970, Vers une représentation parcellaire cadastrale unique (RPCU), Superficie des espaces maritimes sous souveraineté, Superficie des zones économiques exclusives françaises, « atteinte aux privilèges qui se trouveront bien établis », « privilèges des propriétaires et possesseurs des dits biens, et sans y préjudicier », Deux indicateurs de superficie sont donnés par l'IEOM pour la Polynésie française : 4 167, L'archipel des Tuamotu comprend 76 atolls coralliens dont les plus vastes sont, Le district des Îles éparses est composé de l', Le district de Saint-Paul et Amsterdam est composé des îles de Saint-Paul (4. Elle est frontalière de la Belgique au nord-nord-est, du Luxembourg au nord-est, de l'Allemagneà l'est-nord … [98] Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. [438] Since 1900, France has hosted the Olympics on 4 further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics, again in Paris[436] and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix, 1968 in Grenoble and 1992 in Albertville). En 2007, la directive INSPIRE donne aux états-membres, pour ce qui concerne cette problématique de frontières terrestres, l'objectif de mettre en accord les bases de données respectives (modèle, format, raccords) et donc de transcrire en information numérique bilatérale des textes des traités frontaliers à l'horizon 2018[44]. • The humid subtropical climate (Cfa) is found in the Garonne and Rhône's inland plains. France had declared war on Great Britain and the Dutch Republic in November 1792 and did the same on Spain in March 1793; in the spring of 1793, Austria and Prussia invaded France; in March, France created a "sister republic" in the "Republic of Mainz". En 1850, la plupart des plans napoléoniens ont été levés et publiés à l’exception de ceux de la Savoie, du comté de Nice et de la Corse[17]. La superficie donnée par la Situation financière des communes n'est pas une quantité fixe. La Convention UNESCO pour la diversité culturelle : vers un droit international culturel contraignant ? The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago. [177] France also possesses in 2020 the fourth-largest gold reserves in the world. Cities affected by this climate: Arles, Avignon, Fréjus, Hyères, Marseille, Menton, Montpellier, Nice, Perpignan, Toulon. Le cadastre est l'ensemble des documents relatifs au découpage en propriétés, bâties et non bâties, d'une commune française et à leur valeur, ce qui sert notamment de base de calcul à la taxe foncière, et l'administration chargée de conserver ces documents et de les mettre à jour. He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea, in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice, then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists. Le territoire national terrestre est délimité par des frontières terrestres pour les parties de territoire limitrophes de terres d'un pays tiers et par des côtes pour les parties de territoires bordées par un océan ou une mer. Etat d'Europe occidentale, bordé au nord-ouest par la mer du Nord et la Manche, à l'ouest par l'océan Atlantique, au sud par la Méditerranée (au total: 3.427 km de frontières maritimes), et limité: Au nord-est par ses frontières avec la Belgique (avec laquelle la France a 620 km de frontière commune), le Luxembourg (73 km) et l'Allemagne (451 km). Cette valeur est portée à 91 000 km2 dans une annexe au décret du 25 décembre 1936 par le Service géographique des Colonies (SGF), une valeur erronée largement reprise par la suite. France has historical and strong links with cinema, with two Frenchmen, Auguste and Louis Lumière (known as the Lumière Brothers) credited with creating cinema in 1895. Seventh in Nation Brands IndexSM", "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise", "Why France is best place to live in world", Women Leaders Index Gender Equality Case Study: France. However, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. Des points d'interrogation sont ajoutés en face de certaines colonies du fait de l'imprécision des mesures, voire de l'absence de frontière formelle. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. Ainsi la superficie des territoires français sous souveraineté nationale au sein de l'Union européenne s'établit à 641 237 km2, plaçant la France au premier rang des pays européens en superficie. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited). Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north, an Italian occupation zone in the south-east and Vichy France, a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany, in the south, while Free France, the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle, was set up in London. In the newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791), enmity developed and deepened between a group, later called the 'Girondins', who favored war with Austria and Prussia, and a group later called 'Montagnards' or 'Jacobins', who opposed such a war. "[407], The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered across the planet, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States, which covers 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia, which covers 8,148,250 km2 (4,111,312 mi2). It is the second country, after Japan, to have the most gold medals. [28] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux[28] (approximately 18,000 BC). [330] Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. La surface de la France peut être considérée comme étant la somme de deux types de surfaces[25] : Cette superficie ne correspond pas exactement à celle qui résulte de l'addition de celle de toutes les communes d'après le cadastre spécial, telle qu'elle est donnée dans la Situation financière des Communes de France et d'Algérie en 1902. Summers are chilly and wet, while winters are extremely cold, long and snowy. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France, 51 million people were White (85% of the population), 6 million were Northwest African (10%), 2 million were Black (3.3%), and 1 million were Asian (1.7%). [52] The exact boundaries changed greatly with time, but French landholdings of the English Kings remained extensive for decades. [65][66] By the end of 1793 the allies had been driven from France. The country also hosted the 1960 European Nations' Cup, UEFA Euro 1984, UEFA Euro 2016 and 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. In August 1791, the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy. [176] In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. La France est bordée par près de 3.000 km de côtes présentant des aspects divers, des reliefs bas et régularisés aux zones rocheuses et découpées qui cisaillent des terrains plus résistants. [352] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was a French author, while France's latest Nobel prize in literature is Patrick Modiano, who was awarded the prize in 2014. [312] Nevertheless, rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, "Cultura statistics", Musée d'Orsay (official website), History of the museum –. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France, such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste. The only other countries having similar units are Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio, was founded in 1920) and Luxembourg (foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish). Une ordonnance royale de 1827 en confie l'exécution au Dépôt de la Guerre même si des premiers essais eurent lieu en 1818. La superficie de la Guyane inscrite au RGE est actuellement de 83 846 km2 (surface en projection). By the end of the 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. Among the most important French artists of the century are Édith Piaf, Georges Brassens, Léo Ferré, Charles Aznavour and Serge Gainsbourg. C'est sur ce support que le Ministère de la Guerre entreprend en 1887, sur le vœu exprimé par le Conseil supérieur de Statistique, de mesurer la superficie de la France métropolitaine et de ses circonscriptions administratives. The first is delivered through colleges (collège) and leads to the national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet). Le principe de la liberté y prévaut : liberté de navigation, de survol, de pêche, de recherche scientifique, de poser des câbles et des pipelines, de construire des îles artificielles, dans le respect des, Zone internationale des fonds marins (ZIFM), un certain nombre de carreaux pleins (7 341), dont la surface a été déterminée par le calcul. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct, and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower. Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. Web. In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion).[185][186]. The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is the basis for laïcité (state secularism): the state does not formally recognize any religion, except in Alsace-Moselle. Place affected by this climate: Isola 2000. La laisse de basse mer peut être différente du zéro hydrographique. France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the Viet Minh in 1954 at the climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. Contrairement à GeoFLA, ces données ne sont pas diffusées sous licence ouverte, mais selon les licences et modalités pratiquées par l’IGN. [39] Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul. Les valeurs de la superficie de la France ont de tout temps varié selon les ouvrages ou organismes qui les publient. France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise[181][182] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. [354][full citation needed]. [321] The second generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec and Georges Seurat, were also at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions,[322] as well as the fauvist artists Henri Matisse, André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck.[323][324]. [11] In the mid-14th century, French monarchs were embroiled in a series of dynastic conflicts with their English counterparts, which lasted over 100 years. In 2010, it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims. Avec 10,2 millions de km²[Note 10], la Zone économique exclusive de la France est la deuxième du monde par sa superficie après celle des États-Unis. Elle est alors de 551 695,42 km2[49]. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the German, Middle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. [379] France is in 2013 the 2nd exporter of films in the world after the United States. There are approximately 1,027,183 kilometres (638,262 mi) of serviceable roadway in France, ranking it the most extensive network of the European continent. [110] However, the plan was abandoned due to fears of burdening French businesses. But France once again emerged as Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV following the Thirty Years' War. As for music festivals, there are several events organised, the most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds in French as "European"), Solidays and Rock en Seine. Girdlestone p. 14: "It is customary to couple him with Couperin as one couples Haydn with Mozart or Ravel with Debussy. Une Commission royale, présidée par l'astronome Laplace, est créée en 1817 et est chargée d’examiner le projet d’une nouvelle carte topographique répondant aux besoins des services publics et de l’armée. Dans les pays voisins des cadastres régionaux voient le jour. France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion, founded in 1830, which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period. [102][103] According to the 2018 Environmental Performance Index conducted by Yale and Columbia, France was the second-most environmentally-conscious country in the world (after Switzerland), compared to tenth place in 2016 and 27th in 2014. Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. Les précipitations sont modérées et généralement bien réparties dans l'année. [222] In the 17th century, mathematician René Descartes defined a method for the acquisition of scientific knowledge, while Blaise Pascal became famous for his work on probability and fluid mechanics. Coordinates: 47°N 2°E / 47°N 2°E / 47; 2, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green). [115] There are nine national parks[116] and 46 natural parks in France,[117] with the government planning to convert 20% of its Exclusive economic zone into a Marine protected area by 2020. La répartition des fleuves français est conditionnée par le relief et l'histoire géologique. [25], In English, 'France' is pronounced /fræns/ FRANSS in American English and /frɑːns/ FRAHNSS or /fræns/ FRANSS in British English. Mountains affected by this climate: Aiguilles-Rouges, Aravis, the top of Crêt de la neige (rare, altitude 1718 m) and the top of Grand-Ballon (rare, altitude 1423 m). Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. The ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis, "Measuring Overall Health System Performance for 191 Countries", "Espérance de vie, taux de mortalité et taux de mortalité infantile dans le monde", "Evolution de l'espérance de vie à divers âges", "France's obesity crisis: All those croissants really do add up, after all", "The French children learning to fight obesity", "The French Diet – Eat, Drink, and be Thin", France heading for US obesity levels says study, "New French food guidelines aimed at tackling obesity", "France urged to get tough on child obesity", II. [265][266] They were joined by numerous former colonial subjects from North and West Africa, as well as numerous European immigrants from Spain and Portugal. Les frontières terrestres sont définies par des accords et traités internationaux. Rapport présenté à son Excellence le Ministre secrétaire d'État des finances, par le Commissaire royal du cadastre page 10. • The alpine tundra climate (ET) is found in all the mountainous regions of France, generally above 2000 or 2500 meters a.s.l. Harvouin découvre l'existence d'un cadastre géométrique et parcellaire avec une estimation réalisée par des ingénieurs, modèle qu'il propose d'importer en France. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century. [81][82][83] A vestige of the colonial empire are the French overseas departments and territories. L'intendant des finances d'Ormesson, entreprend de consulter l'ensemble des intendants provinciaux qui émettent des réponses globalement positives, et, aidé par l'Intendant des finances Trudaine, confie à Harvouin une mission de voyage d'étude en Italie. France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression – Index on Censorship | Index on Censorship. Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. The Global Divide on Homosexuality- Greater Acceptance in More Secular and Affluent Countries, France marks five-year anniversary of same-sex marriage, Paris climate change agreement: the world's greatest diplomatic success, "La France du beurre et celle de l'huile d'olive maintiennent leurs positions", "Michelin 3 Star Restaurants around the world", "Tour De France 2019: Everything you need to know", "All you need to know about sport in France", France wins right to host the 2007 rugby world cup, "Paris 1900 Summer Olympics. French artists developed the rococo style in the 18th century, as a more intimate imitation of old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau, François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard being the most representative in the country. [306][308][311] Authorities now regard obesity as one of the main public health issues and fight it fiercely. [128] The Constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, 1983, Oxford University Press, p. 554. French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. Other authors are known, for example Chrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan. C'est la superficie des communes calculée par le service du cadastre de la Direction générale des impôts sur la base du cadastre de 1975, corrigée des modifications communales intervenues ensuite qui alimente le répertoire géographique des communes et donc la superficie de la France publiée par l'Insee[33]. En d'autres termes, on a substitué à la surface ellipsoïdale une surface tronconique tangente à l'ellipsoïde le long du parallèle du centre du carreau, et dont la génératrice, coupée en deux parties égales par le parallèle central, est égale en longueur à l'arc de méridien de 10' développé, de la portion intérieure des carreaux traversés par le contour de la frontière ou de la laisse de basse mer, mesurées au, la laisse de basse mer : Intersection de la surface atteinte par les plus basses mers astronomiques avec les surfaces terrestres. Le besoin de calcul de la richesse territoriale et les préoccupations démographiques sont à l'origine du calcul de la superficie du Royaume. Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatized in 1987), France 2 and France 3 have the highest shares, while radio stations RTL, Europe 1 and state-owned France Inter are the least listened to. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. Ainsi dès 1836, des statistiques de superficie des communes, élaborées à partir du cadastre sont publiées et, par voie de conséquence, la superficie de la France. In September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the French absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. The financial crisis aggravated by France's involvement in the American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors to the French Revolution. Directors from nations such as Poland (Roman Polanski, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Andrzej Żuławski), Argentina (Gaspar Noé, Edgardo Cozarinsky), Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff, Anatole Litvak), Austria (Michael Haneke) and Georgia (Géla Babluani, Otar Iosseliani) are prominent in the ranks of French cinema. [50] Under the rules of the Salic law the crown of France could not pass to a woman nor could the line of kingship pass through the female line. [440] The football team is among the most successful in the world, with two FIFA World Cup victories in 1998 and 2018,[441] one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006,[442] and two UEFA European Championships in 1984[443] and 2000. Meanwhile, French epistemology became a prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré, Gaston Bachelard, Jean Cavaillès and Jules Vuillemin. As of 2016[update], French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros, the equivalent of 96.4% of French GDP. Cambridge Illustrated History of France (Cambridge University Press,1999), This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 19:04. [241] This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in 1973, and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.7 in 1994 to 2.0 in 2010. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition. Les bornes doivent être dotées de coordonnées de précision métrique et les lignes frontières des bases de données doivent également être en accord métrique avec les pays voisins et passer par les bornes[45]. On a supposé que la Terre a réellement la figure d'un ellipsoïde de révolution. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. [334] Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy. Influential weeklies also include investigative and satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné and Charlie Hebdo, as well as Paris Match. [412], France is one of the most liberal countries in the world when it comes to LGBT rights: a 2013 Pew Research Center poll found that 77% of the French think that same-sex relationships should be accepted by society, one of the highest acceptance rates in the world (comparable to that of other Western European nations). [37] According to Plutarch and the writings of scholar Brendan Woods, the Gallic Wars resulted in 800 conquered cities, 300 subdued tribes, one million men sold into slavery, and another three million dead in battle. Cities affected by this climate: Belle-Île-en-Mer, Saint-Brieuc. Cette superficie varie selon le tracé de ces limites et leur niveau de précision, selon le mode de calcul ou de projection cartographique et selon la convention définissant les espaces mesurés, mais aussi, depuis l'apparition des cartes numériques, selon le produit cartographique numérique utilisé. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of 12. Deux types de superficies peuvent être différenciées selon leur mode d'élaboration : les superficies cadastrales, obtenues par mesurage direct des parcelles cadastrales élémentaires, et les superficies géographiques, mesurées à partir de supports cartographiques. Summers are pleasantly warm and dry, while winters are very cold and snowy. Noir sur Blanc: Les premières photos du camp de concentration This is due to the country's heavy investment in nuclear power following the 1973 oil crisis,[100] which now accounts for 75 percent of its electricity production[101] and results in less pollution. His most famous work, Essais, created the literary genre of the essay. The first leader to make himself king of all the Franks was Clovis I, who began his reign in 481, routing the last forces of the Roman governors of the province in 486. Later kings would expand their directly possessed domaine royal to cover over half of modern continental France by the 15th century, including most of the north, centre and west of France.